The former Wall Street financier had drawn criticism after calling a reporter to give a profanity-laced tirade against his colleagues.
Mr Trump’s chief of staff Reince Priebus and spokesman Sean Spicer both left their posts with his appointment.
The decision was made by Mr Trump’s new chief of staff, Gen John Kelly, who was sworn in on Monday.
The president was also unhappy with Mr Scaramucci’s performance, the White House confirmed.
Mr Trump’s spokeswoman, Sarah Sanders, said the president thought Mr Scaramucci’s comments to the reporter “were inappropriate for a person in that position”
Mr Scaramucci’s arrival in the West Wing on 21 July coincided with the resignation of press secretary Sean Spicer.
Mr Spicer had “vehemently disagreed” with the appointment of Mr Scaramucci, telling the President it was “a major mistake”, the New York Times reported.
Mr Priebus was removed by President Trump late last week.
It has not been an easy period for Mr Scaramucci.
US media has reported that his wife filed for divorce while she was nine months pregnant, and that he congratulated her by text when their second son was born last week.
Staff in this White House have the job life expectancy of mayflies. Only 10 days ago, Mr Scaramucci burst on to the scene as the fast-talking New Yorker whose fanatical devotion to the president was matched only by his distaste for the established order.
Although his job tenure was short, he managed to do a lot of order-disrupting. Press Secretary Sean Spicer resigned to give Mr Scaramucci a “clean slate”. Then, like a heat-seeking missile powered by foul language, Mr Scaramucci went after Reince Priebus, who was unceremoniously cashiered on Friday.
Now it is Mr Scaramucci’s turn to wipe down the slate.